Cumulative Sentences Review Sheet
Sentence Type#1: Simple Sentence
Example: I like toast.
Rule: Subject/Verb (object)
Sentence Type#2: Present Participle
Example: The toast was blackened, burning in the toaster oven.
Rule: verb ending in –ing is the start of the DC, the subject of which is the subject of the IC
Sentence Type#3: Adjective Phrase
Example: The toast was burnt, black and charred from spending too much time in the toaster.
Rule: IC + DC that starts with an adjective (verb in the past is an adjective)
Sentence Type#4: Appositive
Example: I, Rosie Reid, am hip. Our English teacher, Ms. Reid, is the best.
Rule: When you say the subject and then the more specific subject as the DC (in commas).
Sentence Type#5: Gerund
Example: I like jogging. It is hard.
Rule: Verb used as a noun (often –ing). It can be replaced by it.
Sentence Type#6: Infinitive
Example: To do well on the test, study. To run fast, you should condition. To play sports, you must practice.
Rule: To +verb (“in order”)
Sentence Type#7: Absolute
Example: I ran into the room, my hair flowing behind me. The police officer walked into the room, her gun in its holster. The cat was very ugly, her teeth gone. The student took many notes, her hand getting sore.
Rule: IC + DC, the subject of which is not the same as the subject of the IC, but is related to or part of it.
Sentence Type#8: Simile
Example: Her name sounds like someone choking on applesauce.
Rule: Comparing two unlike things using like or as.
Sentence Type#9: Relative Clause
Example: Gilli, who is my favorite, is working hard.
Rule: IC and a DC that starts with one of 4 words: who/m, that, which.
Sentence Type#10: Prepositional Phrase
Example: In the beginning, monkeys walked on four legs. Around the time I ate the rotten food, I threw up. With my keys in hand, I opened the door.
Rule: DC that starts with a preposition (Anything a squirrel can be in relation to the tree. In, on, of, around, on top of, with, at, under, below, beside, next to, above, through, near, far from.) Can be at the end or beginning.
Sentence Type#11: Subordinate Clause
Example: I like dogs, but I don’t like picking up dog poop. The man likes ice cream, although it is unhealthy.
Rule: IC +DC that would be IC except it has a word that makes DC. Or, if, and, because, due to, whether, although, either, while, anyway, however, despite the fact that…
Sentence Type#12: Parallel phrase
Example: I walked out the door, into the street, and down the stairs. (prepositional phrase, article, noun). I like to sing softly, yell loudly, and whisper quietly. (Verb, adverb). I wrote the story, read the book, and watched the movie (verb, article, noun)
Rule: Repeats two or more grammatical parts in the same order in different parts of the sentence.
Sentence Type#13: Resumptive modifier
Example: Cathy has cats, cats asleep like little donuts. Hank threw baseballs, baseballs the size of potatoes.
Rule: IC +DC, the subject of which is the object of the IC.
Sentence Type#14: Begin with an adverb
Example: Slowly, I began to understand cumulative sentences.
Rule: (-ly) DON’T FORGET THE COMMA
Sentence Type#15: Noun phrase
Example: I gave her a bad grade, a low F.
Rule: IC + DC starts with a noun.